Вопрос: Запрос на отправку JavaScript, как отправить форму


Я пытаюсь направить браузер на другую страницу. Если бы я хотел получить запрос GET, я бы сказал

document.location.href = 'http://example.com/q=a';

Но ресурс, который я пытаюсь получить, не будет реагировать должным образом, если я не использую запрос POST. Если бы это не было динамически сгенерировано, я мог бы использовать HTML

<form action="http://example.com/" method="POST">
  <input type="hidden" name="q" value="a">
</form>

Тогда я просто отправлю форму из DOM.

Но на самом деле мне бы хотелось, чтобы JavaScript-код позволял мне сказать

post_to_url('http://example.com/', {'q':'a'});

Какая лучшая реализация перекрестного браузера?

редактировать

Мне жаль, что я не был чист. Мне нужно решение, которое изменяет расположение браузера, так же как и отправку формы. Если это возможно с XMLHttpRequest , это не очевидно. И это не должно быть асинхронным и не использовать XML, поэтому Ajax не является ответом.


1262


источник


Ответы:


function post(path, params, method) {
    method = method || "post"; // Set method to post by default if not specified.

    // The rest of this code assumes you are not using a library.
    // It can be made less wordy if you use one.
    var form = document.createElement("form");
    form.setAttribute("method", method);
    form.setAttribute("action", path);

    for(var key in params) {
        if(params.hasOwnProperty(key)) {
            var hiddenField = document.createElement("input");
            hiddenField.setAttribute("type", "hidden");
            hiddenField.setAttribute("name", key);
            hiddenField.setAttribute("value", params[key]);

            form.appendChild(hiddenField);
        }
    }

    document.body.appendChild(form);
    form.submit();
}

Пример:

post('/contact/', {name: 'Johnny Bravo'});

РЕДАКТИРОВАТЬ : Так как это получило так много, я предполагаю, что люди будут копировать это много. Поэтому я добавил hasOwnPropertyпроверьте, чтобы исправить любые непреднамеренные ошибки.


1816



Это будет вариант выбранного ответа с использованием JQuery ,

// Post to the provided URL with the specified parameters.
function post(path, parameters) {
    var form = $('<form></form>');

    form.attr("method", "post");
    form.attr("action", path);

    $.each(parameters, function(key, value) {
        var field = $('<input></input>');

        field.attr("type", "hidden");
        field.attr("name", key);
        field.attr("value", value);

        form.append(field);
    });

    // The form needs to be a part of the document in
    // order for us to be able to submit it.
    $(document.body).append(form);
    form.submit();
}

108



Простая быстрая и грязная реализация ответа @Aaron:

document.body.innerHTML += '<form id="dynForm" action="http://example.com/" method="post"><input type="hidden" name="q" value="a"></form>';
document.getElementById("dynForm").submit();

Конечно, вам лучше использовать структуру JavaScript, такую ​​как Опытный образец или JQuery ...


62



Using the createElement function provided in this answer, which is necessary due to IE's brokenness with the name attribute on elements created normally with document.createElement:

function postToURL(url, values) {
    values = values || {};

    var form = createElement("form", {action: url,
                                      method: "POST",
                                      style: "display: none"});
    for (var property in values) {
        if (values.hasOwnProperty(property)) {
            var value = values[property];
            if (value instanceof Array) {
                for (var i = 0, l = value.length; i < l; i++) {
                    form.appendChild(createElement("input", {type: "hidden",
                                                             name: property,
                                                             value: value[i]}));
                }
            }
            else {
                form.appendChild(createElement("input", {type: "hidden",
                                                         name: property,
                                                         value: value}));
            }
        }
    }
    document.body.appendChild(form);
    form.submit();
    document.body.removeChild(form);
}

51



Rakesh Pai's answer is amazing, but there is an issue that occurs for me (in Safari) when I try to post a form with a field called submit. For example, post_to_url("http://google.com/",{ submit: "submit" } );. I have patched the function slightly to walk around this variable space collision.

    function post_to_url(path, params, method) {
        method = method || "post";

        var form = document.createElement("form");

        //Move the submit function to another variable
        //so that it doesn't get overwritten.
        form._submit_function_ = form.submit;

        form.setAttribute("method", method);
        form.setAttribute("action", path);

        for(var key in params) {
            var hiddenField = document.createElement("input");
            hiddenField.setAttribute("type", "hidden");
            hiddenField.setAttribute("name", key);
            hiddenField.setAttribute("value", params[key]);

            form.appendChild(hiddenField);
        }

        document.body.appendChild(form);
        form._submit_function_(); //Call the renamed function.
    }
    post_to_url("http://google.com/", { submit: "submit" } ); //Works!

32



No, you cant have the JavaScript post request like a form submit.

What you can have is a form in HTML, then submit it with the JavaScript. (as explained many times on this page)

You can create the HTML yourself, you don't need JavaScript to write the HTML. That would be silly if people suggested that.

<form id="ninja" action="http://example.com/" method="POST">
  <input id="donaldduck" type="hidden" name="q" value="a">
</form>

Your function would just configure the form the way you want it.

function postToURL(a,b,c){
   document.getElementById("ninja").action     = a;
   document.getElementById("donaldduck").name  = b;
   document.getElementById("donaldduck").value = c;
   document.getElementById("ninja").submit();
}

Then, use it like.

postToURL("http://example.com/","q","a");

But I would just leave out the function and just do.

   document.getElementById('donaldduck').value = "a";
   document.getElementById("ninja").submit();

Finally, the style decision goes in the ccs file.

.ninja{ 
  display:none;
}

Personally I think forms should be addressed by name but that is not important right now.


27



If you have Prototype installed, you can tighten up the code to generate and submit the hidden form like this:

 var form = new Element('form',
                        {method: 'post', action: 'http://example.com/'});
 form.insert(new Element('input',
                         {name: 'q', value: 'a', type: 'hidden'}));
 $(document.body).insert(form);
 form.submit();

24



this is the answer of rakesh, but with support for arrays (which is quite common in forms):

plain javascript:

function post_to_url(path, params, method) {
    method = method || "post"; // Set method to post by default, if not specified.

    // The rest of this code assumes you are not using a library.
    // It can be made less wordy if you use one.
    var form = document.createElement("form");
    form.setAttribute("method", method);
    form.setAttribute("action", path);

    var addField = function( key, value ){
        var hiddenField = document.createElement("input");
        hiddenField.setAttribute("type", "hidden");
        hiddenField.setAttribute("name", key);
        hiddenField.setAttribute("value", value );

        form.appendChild(hiddenField);
    }; 

    for(var key in params) {
        if(params.hasOwnProperty(key)) {
            if( params[key] instanceof Array ){
                for(var i = 0; i < params[key].length; i++){
                    addField( key, params[key][i] )
                }
            }
            else{
                addField( key, params[key] ); 
            }
        }
    }

    document.body.appendChild(form);
    form.submit();
}

oh, and here's the jquery version: (slightly different code, but boils down to the same thing)

function post_to_url(path, params, method) {
    method = method || "post"; // Set method to post by default, if not specified.

    var form = $(document.createElement( "form" ))
        .attr( {"method": method, "action": path} );

    $.each( params, function(key,value){
        $.each( value instanceof Array? value : [value], function(i,val){
            $(document.createElement("input"))
                .attr({ "type": "hidden", "name": key, "value": val })
                .appendTo( form );
        }); 
    } ); 

    form.appendTo( document.body ).submit(); 
}

18



Well, wish I had read all the other posts so I didn't lose time creating this from Rakesh Pai's answer. Here's a recursive solution that works with arrays and objects. No dependency on jQuery.

Added a segment to handle cases where the entire form should be submitted like an array. (ie. where there's no wrapper object around a list of items)

/**
 * Posts javascript data to a url using form.submit().  
 * Note: Handles json and arrays.
 * @param {string} path - url where the data should be sent.
 * @param {string} data - data as javascript object (JSON).
 * @param {object} options -- optional attributes
 *  { 
 *    {string} method: get/post/put/etc,
 *    {string} arrayName: name to post arraylike data.  Only necessary when root data object is an array.
 *  }
 * @example postToUrl('/UpdateUser', {Order {Id: 1, FirstName: 'Sally'}});
 */
function postToUrl(path, data, options) {
    if (options === undefined) {
        options = {};
    }

    var method = options.method || "post"; // Set method to post by default if not specified.

    var form = document.createElement("form");
    form.setAttribute("method", method);
    form.setAttribute("action", path);

    function constructElements(item, parentString) {
        for (var key in item) {
            if (item.hasOwnProperty(key) && item[key] != null) {
                if (Object.prototype.toString.call(item[key]) === '[object Array]') {
                    for (var i = 0; i < item[key].length; i++) {
                        constructElements(item[key][i], parentString + key + "[" + i + "].");
                    }
                } else if (Object.prototype.toString.call(item[key]) === '[object Object]') {
                    constructElements(item[key], parentString + key + ".");
                } else {
                    var hiddenField = document.createElement("input");
                    hiddenField.setAttribute("type", "hidden");
                    hiddenField.setAttribute("name", parentString + key);
                    hiddenField.setAttribute("value", item[key]);
                    form.appendChild(hiddenField);
                }
            }
        }
    }

    //if the parent 'data' object is an array we need to treat it a little differently
    if (Object.prototype.toString.call(data) === '[object Array]') {
        if (options.arrayName === undefined) console.warn("Posting array-type to url will doubtfully work without an arrayName defined in options.");
        //loop through each array item at the parent level
        for (var i = 0; i < data.length; i++) {
            constructElements(data[i], (options.arrayName || "") + "[" + i + "].");
        }
    } else {
        //otherwise treat it normally
        constructElements(data, "");
    }

    document.body.appendChild(form);
    form.submit();
};

16



One solution is to generate the form and submit it. One implementation is

function post_to_url(url, params) {
    var form = document.createElement('form');
    form.action = url;
    form.method = 'POST';

    for (var i in params) {
        if (params.hasOwnProperty(i)) {
            var input = document.createElement('input');
            input.type = 'hidden';
            input.name = i;
            input.value = params[i];
            form.appendChild(input);
        }
    }

    form.submit();
}

So I can implement a URL shortening bookmarklet with a simple

javascript:post_to_url('http://is.gd/create.php', {'URL': location.href});

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