Вопрос: Как вы читаете stdin на Python?


Я пытаюсь сделать некоторые из кодовый гольф проблемы, но все они требуют ввода от stdin, Как это получить на Python?


1158


источник


Ответы:


Вы можете использовать fileinputмодуль:

import fileinput

for line in fileinput.input():
    pass

fileinputбудет проходить через все строки ввода, указанные как имена файлов, заданные в аргументах командной строки, или стандартный ввод, если аргументы отсутствуют.


796



Есть несколько способов сделать это.

  • sys.stdinявляется файлоподобным объектом, на который вы можете вызывать функции readили readlinesесли вы хотите прочитать все или хотите все прочитать и разделить на новую строку автоматически. (Тебе нужно import sysдля этого, чтобы работать.)

  • Если ты хочешь незамедлительный пользователь для ввода, вы можете использовать raw_inputв Python 2.X и просто inputв Python 3.

  • Если вы просто хотите прочитать параметры командной строки, вы можете получить к ним доступ через sys.argv список.

Вы, вероятно, найдете эта статья Wikibook по I / O в Python чтобы быть полезной ссылкой.


575



import sys

for line in sys.stdin:
    print line

320



Python also has built-in functions input() and raw_input(). See the Python documentation under Built-in Functions.

For example,

name = raw_input("Enter your name: ")   # Python 2.x

or

name = input("Enter your name: ")   # Python 3

178



Here's from Learning Python:

import sys
data = sys.stdin.readlines()
print "Counted", len(data), "lines."

On Unix, you could test it by doing something like:

% cat countlines.py | python countlines.py 
Counted 3 lines.

On Windows or DOS, you'd do:

C:\> type countlines.py | python countlines.py 
Counted 3 lines.

159



The answer proposed by others:

for line in sys.stdin:
  print line

is very simple and pythonic, but it must be noted that the script will wait until EOF before starting to iterate on the lines of input.

This means that tail -f error_log | myscript.py will not process lines as expected.

The correct script for such a use case would be:

while 1:
    try:
        line = sys.stdin.readline()
    except KeyboardInterrupt:
        break

    if not line:
        break

    print line

UPDATE
From the comments it has been cleared that on python 2 only there might be buffering involved, so that you end up waiting for the buffer to fill or EOF before the print call is issued.


85



How do you read from stdin in Python?

I'm trying to do some of the code golf challenges, but they all require the input to be taken from stdin. How do I get that in Python?

You can use:

  • sys.stdin - A file-like object - call sys.stdin.read() to read everything.
  • input(prompt) - pass it an optional prompt to output, it reads from stdin up to the first newline, which it strips. You'd have to do this repeatedly to get more lines, at the end of the input it raises EOFError. (Probably not great for golfing.) In Python 2, this is rawinput(prompt).
  • open(0).read() - In Python 3 open accepts file descriptors (integers representing operating system IO resources), and 0 is the descriptor of stdin. It returns a file-like object like sys.stdin - probably your best bet for golfing.
  • open('/dev/stdin').read() - similar to open(0), works on Python 2 and 3, but not on Windows (or even Cygwin).
  • fileinput.input() - returns an iterator over lines in all files listed in sys.argv[1:], or stdin if not given. Use like ''.join(fileinput.input()).

Both sys and fileinput must be imported, respectively, of course.

Quick sys.stdin examples compatible with Python 2 and 3, Windows, Unix

You just need to read from sys.stdin, for example, if you pipe data to stdin:

$ echo foo | python -c "import sys; print(sys.stdin.read())"
foo

file example

Say you have a file, inputs.txt, we can accept that file and write it back out:

python -c "import sys; sys.stdout.write(sys.stdin.read())" < inputs.txt

Longer answer

Here's a complete, easily replicable demo, using two methods, the builtin function, input (use raw_input in Python 2), and sys.stdin. The data is unmodified, so the processing is a non-operation.

To begin with, let's create a file for inputs:

$ python -c "print('foo\nbar\nbaz')" > inputs.txt

And using the code we've already seen, we can check that we've created the file:

$ python -c "import sys; sys.stdout.write(sys.stdin.read())" < inputs.txt 
foo
bar
baz

Here's the help on sys.stdin.read from Python 3:

read(size=-1, /) method of _io.TextIOWrapper instance
    Read at most n characters from stream.

    Read from underlying buffer until we have n characters or we hit EOF.
    If n is negative or omitted, read until EOF.

Builtin function, input (raw_input in Python 2)

The builtin function input reads from standard input up to a newline, which is stripped (complementing print, which adds a newline by default.) This occurs until it gets EOF (End Of File), at which point it raises EOFError.

Thus, here's how you can use input in Python 3 (or raw_input in Python 2) to read from stdin - so we create a Python module we call stdindemo.py:

$ python -c "print('try:\n    while True:\n        print(input())\nexcept EOFError:\n    pass')" > stdindemo.py 

And let's print it back out to ensure it's as we expect:

$ python -c "import sys; sys.stdout.write(sys.stdin.read())" < stdindemo.py 
try:
    while True:
        print(input())
except EOFError:
    pass

Again, input reads up until the newline and essentially strips it from the line. print adds a newline. So while they both modify the input, their modifications cancel. (So they are essentially each other's complement.)

And when input gets the end-of-file character, it raises EOFError, which we ignore and then exit from the program.

And on Linux/Unix, we can pipe from cat:

$ cat inputs.txt | python -m stdindemo
foo
bar
baz

Or we can just redirect the file from stdin:

$ python -m stdindemo < inputs.txt 
foo
bar
baz

We can also execute the module as a script:

$ python stdindemo.py < inputs.txt 
foo
bar
baz

Here's the help on the builtin input from Python 3:

input(prompt=None, /)
    Read a string from standard input.  The trailing newline is stripped.

    The prompt string, if given, is printed to standard output without a
    trailing newline before reading input.

    If the user hits EOF (*nix: Ctrl-D, Windows: Ctrl-Z+Return), raise EOFError.
    On *nix systems, readline is used if available.

sys.stdin

Here we make a demo script using sys.stdin. The efficient way to iterate over a file-like object is to use the file-like object as an iterator. The complementary method to write to stdout from this input is to simply use sys.stdout.write:

$ python -c "print('import sys\nfor line in sys.stdin:\n    sys.stdout.write(line)')" > stdindemo2.py

Print it back out to make sure it looks right:

$ python -c "import sys; sys.stdout.write(sys.stdin.read())" < stdindemo2.py 
import sys
for line in sys.stdin:
    sys.stdout.write(line)

And redirecting the inputs into the file:

$ python -m stdindemo2 < inputs.txt
foo
bar
baz

Golfed into a command:

$ python -c "import sys; sys.stdout.write(sys.stdin.read())" < inputs.txt
foo
bar
baz

File Descriptors for Golfing

Since the file descriptors for stdin and stdout are 0 and 1 respectively, we can also pass those to open in Python 3 (not 2, and note that we still need the 'w' for writing to stdout).

If this works on your system, it will shave off more characters.

$ python -c "open(1,'w').write(open(0).read())" < inputs.txt
baz
bar
foo

Python 2's io.open does this as well, but the import takes a lot more space:

$ python -c "from io import open; open(1,'w').write(open(0).read())" < inputs.txt 
foo
bar
baz

Addressing other comments and answers

One comment suggests ''.join(sys.stdin) but that's actually longer than sys.stdin.read() - plus Python must create an extra list in memory (that's how str.join works when not given a list) - for contrast:

''.join(sys.stdin)
sys.stdin.read()

The top answer suggests:

import fileinput

for line in fileinput.input():
    pass

But, since sys.stdin implements the file API, including the iterator protocol, that's just the same as this:

import sys

for line in sys.stdin:
    pass

Another answer does suggest this. Just remember that if you do it in an interpreter, you'll need to do Ctrl-d if you're on Linux or Mac, or Ctrl-z on Windows (after Enter) to send the end-of-file character to the process. Also, that answer suggests print(line) - which adds a '\n' to the end - use print(line, end='') instead (if in Python 2, you'll need from __future__ import print_function).

The real use-case for fileinput is for reading in a series of files.


45



This will echo standard input to standard output:

import sys
line = sys.stdin.readline()
while line:
    print line,
    line = sys.stdin.readline()

35



Building on all the anwers using sys.stdin, you can also do something like the following to read from an argument file if at least one argument exists, and fall back to stdin otherwise:

import sys
f = open(sys.argv[1]) if len(sys.argv) > 1 else sys.stdin    
for line in f:
#     Do your stuff

and use it as either

$ python do-my-stuff.py infile.txt

or

$ cat infile.txt | python do-my-stuff.py

or even

$ python do-my-stuff.py < infile.txt

That would make your Python script behave like many GNU/Unix programs such as cat, grep and sed.


28



The following chip of code will help you (it will read all of stdin blocking unto EOF, into one string):

import sys
input_str = sys.stdin.read()
print input_str.split()

12



Try this:

import sys

print sys.stdin.read().upper()

and check it with:

$ echo "Hello World" | python myFile.py

7